You will all undoubtedly be aware of the commerciality of halloween, the ghoulish plastic ‘scarefest’ that will likely go on to pollute the earth in a genuinely scary way. Halloween bares little resemblance to the original ancient festival of Samhain … Continue reading
As I like to forage and share recipes, it occurs to me that I have used elder, probably more than most other. The uses seem almost limitless. I have posts to share in the mushroom berry and flower foraging sections … Continue reading
So my next lot of foraged mushrooms were Jews ear or Jelly ear. I was initially uncomfortable with using ‘Jews ear’ but it is a part of the interesting mythology and hedge lore of the elder. ‘Jews ear’ is a mistranslation from Judas’ ear. It is believed that Judas escariot hung imself from an elder tree. Gruesome hey? Wether you call it jews ear, wood ear, jelly ear or something else (we like fairies baby ears -they outgrow them like teeth you know) the important part to remember is that it is the only fungus which looks like an ear, there are similar looking cup fungus but none look like an ear or are poisonous (according to my books and the foray Ive been on) It grows on dead elder.
I decided to dedicate a seperate post specifically to elder. Im sure there will be many more too, a quite magical and exceptionally useful tree.
Presumably the one on the left is a very young, just forming jelly/jews ear fungus, I think it’s too small to give much further consideration to, the photo on the right displays the shape very well.
Picked and turned over you can see how this fungus has gotten it’s name. The ‘proper’ name is A. auricula-judae. It is found all year but most common in Autumn, good for ‘halloweeny’ jokes and treats with children.
yummm youre thinking aren’t you?
Before you head for the hills, I will bet money that you have already unwittingly eaten this before, in anything containing mixed mushrooms. Especially mushroom soup.
They dry very well and will rehydrate back to their original size and texture. Interesting to note in China they are considered useful in treating cold and flu fevers and traditionally considered good for sore throats (much like elder berry recipes are) Interestingly proven to be effective in the general reduction of cholesterol levels. So the bacon and cream in the following recipe are optional (and also not vegetarian)
I had to use bought mushrooms as I am a new novice and have struggled to even find very much to identify, and what I have managed to find, and managed to identify at least the genus of, has rarely been edible. I have to say I’m not only interested in edibles. I’m truly a bit hooked and fascinated. Turns out I am not the only one having a hard time finding much to date, this year, so far.
I had a couple of cartons of the general white argarics you buy, argaricus bisporous to be specific, some portobellos (the same but mature) chestnut mushrooms (the same but brown) and a good sized handful of my fairy ears 😉 Make sure the latter are well washed (they can be tricky)
1 large onion
3 small cloves of garlic
herb infused oil, dried basil
plenty of seasoning
play around with whatever flavours you like, a small amount of spice is good, but dont overdo it, the flavour is very easily overpowered
finely dice the onion and garlic and add to the slow cooker with some oil
chop the mushrooms thickly and the bigger portobellos into 8, thinly sliced my ears which were fresh, you can add them whole if dehydrated then fish them out and chop them before blending
add them to the pot covering in your herbs and flavourings as you go
I poured over about 2 cups of boiling water and a added a handful of yellow lentils
blend when cooked
season to taste
swirl on cream (optional)
add crispy bacon strips and crutons (optional)
Also makes a great pasta sauce! Enjoy!
I had a busy week and its taken me a while to even find the time to finish all my tasks and jobs and get back to blog about it Ill start with last Sunday, it is officially the start … Continue reading
Im going to focus on hazelnuts, walnuts and sweet chestnuts as I find these to be the most useful and hope to have interesting and useful things to share.
Just quickly; some of the other nuts you can forage and use are acorns, beech and pine. Personally I think they are a lot of hard work for little results though if you have a gluten free diet it might be useful to know you could make flour from acorn or chestnuts. Acorns can be high in tanins which are bad for your kidneys, so it is usually leeched out with water.
I thought it worth mentioning here that new leaf growth in the spring from many of these trees is tasty.
You may find Beech is more useful for that rather than the teeny tiny nuts, though Im told if youre lucky enough to have a press you can make lovely oil with them . Given how I use oils this is something I would very much like to own! (If you should hear of one being thrown out remember me).
Theres is always such a huge abundance of beech masts that everyone at some point must have thought about how they can be useful
Im talking about the 3 nuts in the order you are most likely to be finding them in the year.
The trees are more shrubs, so looking in hedgerows is a good start, I go towards the end of summer and if I find any pick them and eat them right away. When you eat nuts whilst they ae fresh and green like this, they are softer, wet and sweeter (kind of sweet in the way that carrots are) You can pick them and leave them to harden and dry to be more like the ones in the shops around christmastime
If you’re very lucky or you have your own trees that you a re able to keep squirel free you might find some that have dropped and some that have ripened and slightly hardened.
Check them for little holes left by the weevils, the squirels know not to eat these and there wont be anything edible inside.
Doormice also like hazel nuts and I couldnt resist sharing this very cute of photo of a sleeping one from The Yorkshire Wildlife Trust Taken by Tom Chalmers
cute distraction; worth digressing for
So this is what your hazel nuts look like.
This is from TCV website which I highly recommend.
http://treegrowing.tcv.org.uk/grow/tree-recipes/hazel ‘TheConservationVolunteers’ do these useful information pages/guides for growing your own trees.
It’s easy and you might grow your own hazel.
I was lucky enough to find some ripe and ready just waiting to be picked up from the ground!
I shelled them with nutcrackers (ate quite a few) and then roasted the rest with a little almond oil and sea salt
snacked on a few more
Then stored them in honey. I think they’re nicer than salted caramel and nut brittle.
(yes I snaked on a few more..)
Inspired by such thought, this happened:
Recipe for ‘Nutty dessert glasses’
(makes x4 small glasses/bowls)
x1 tub mascarpone
about 24 hazel nuts (honey to drizzle)
400g soft brown sugar
150 ml from your bottle of hazelnut coffee porter (drink the rest wahey!)
chestnut puree (optional)
In the bottom place a few of the hazelnuts stored in local honey (you can just put shop bough ones in and drizzle them in honey)
Whip up a tablespoon of mascarpone with a good sized tablespoon of chestnut puree (recipe to follow, could add a bit of freshly squeezed orange instead or leave it plain)
(my my nails are clean that is from peeling chestnuts -it hurts might be bruised)
I then topped with granola (making granola is easy but I took photographs and will add a recipe later, google will help in the meantime)
place in the fridge whilst you make the caramel/syrup
I used 150ml of Saltiare brewery’s hazelnut coffee porter
I added around 100g of brown sugar turn up the heat to get it going and then turn down to a med/high
leave it to bubble and froth for around 5 mins
removed from the heat when its looking a bit thicker
the bubbles will die down and it should look like this
Get your gla ss(es) from the fridge, sprinkle in granola nd then drizzle over your caramel
Hazelnuts are also very good for baking with -bread too very nice with cheese 😉 I used walnut this way (coming next)
One of my favourite childhood trees was a big old walnut tree. I have recently been informed that they only produce nuts for 40 years -seems unlikely to me but then maybe my memory is influenced by the fact that I was much smaller then. It seems very old and I remember gathering and eating the walnuts, and there were always so many of them! It has been hard for me to find one producing the nuts abundantly, and even harder to beat the squirrels to them, nonethless I was lucky this year and managed a ‘haul’ of about 7. I think they’re likely the most difficult to forage.
These are what the leaves look like there were no nuts still on to photograph, just the peeled remnants of the squirrels feast 😦
Each leaft is devided into 7-9 ‘leaflets’ whcih might be able to see there.
The walnuts are inside a green tough skin, you can see some of the black through these, and on the peeled ones. This can be used as a natural die and ink. You might be able to see them leaking on the picture? fresh walnuts are also called wet walnuts or green walnuts. Once you crack the shell the familiar wrinkly walnut appears inside. They are much softer resh and have a much milder sweeter flavour. You can save and dry thm if you like. I nibbled on mine and baked a few in bread rolls with a traditional nettle wrapped cornish Yarg. They were delicious.
You can google a basic white bread roll recipe -I used the hairy bikers one.
If you are lucky enough to find more it would be great to have a go at making the dyes and inks. Or you might be able to get some fresh one at farmers markets. Of course thery dont have to be fresh to be useful and you can buy them to use in recipes. Apple walnut and gorgonzola are wonderful flavours in tarts and pastries. Baklava (walnut and pistachio) not just coffee and walnut cake -but why wouldnt want to make that? 🙂 and of course pastas and salads with walnuts and cheese, and walnut and basil pesto too.
Oh and who wouldnt like to make little boats out of the shells! http://madebyjoel.com/2010/04/walnut-boats.html
*intresting fact* The Romans associated the walnut with Juno, the Roman goddess of women and marriage and the wife of Jupiter. This association led to the unique wedding practice of throwing walnuts at the bride and groom as a symbol of fertility. Women often carried walnuts to promote fertility. The botanical name Juglans is derived from Jupiter’s glans.
moving swiftly on
Chestnuts are one of those trees that have both male and female flowers, the female flowers become the nuts in Autumn
The ancient Greeks dedicated the sweet chestnut to Zeus and its botanical name castanea comes from Castonis, a Town in Thessaly in Greece where the tree was grown for its nuts.
I am lucky to have a patch of very well established chestnut trees producing abundant amounts each, which is within walking distance (as are all of the nuts Ive foraged this year)
I estimate I picked around 2lbs that have gone into purees/preserves, pies and have been eaten as snacks, this is a teeny tiny fraction of what falls onto the ground and rots away.
you can cut a cross in the flat side or a slit along the edge top to bottom, some find that easier but there is a far greater risk of slipping, thus uts harder to do whilst watching a film or something, quite tricky without a chestnut knife I found so I opted fro the cross in the flat side. You need heat and moisture to make the shells easier to work with. You can roast, boil or even wrap a handful in a damp towel and place in the microwave for a couple of minutes. I found a very hot tea towel a bit of a nuisance/pain (literally) and I prefer the flavour of roasted (which could be done after if you find them easier to peel from the microwave) If you have a lot to do it will take you longer than the oven or boiling. Theres not that much difference/if any at all in the ease of peeling with each method. Peel an eat or set aside for use (I had to put mine in the fridge overnight) soft/moist/protein, means that they could likely spoil easily. You usually use them straight away.
The membranes can be bitter if you dont peel them off it is almost as painstaking as deseeding rosehips. I left them on for the next recipe. It didn’t taste bitter.
Chestnut preserve/jam and puree
NOTE: This recipe makes 2 batches one with milk/cream for quick-ish use (milk/cream will spoil) and one with water
300-350g of chestnuts (peeled and roasted divide into 2 pans)
2 cups milk (or cream)
2 cups of water
2 cups golden sugar
x1 vanilla pod
x4 tbspn dark rum
add the milk/cream to one pan and the water to the other and a cup of soft golden sugar to both
Bring to the boil, reduce, and simmer
when the liquid has mostly absorbed and the nuts are just going crumbly on the outsides lift them out with a slotted spoon and whizz in the food processor
cut you vanilla pod in half and scrape one half into each pan and add the rum
add the liquid from the pan to the processor, til you reach your desired consistency
(you may wish to add more boiled water/milk/cream or brandy. The water needs to be boiled if you are treating this as a preserve)
TIP: if you’re making both, start with the water one then you dont have to wash everything before doing the other! (get in)
This part is optional, I pressed my puree through a seive for a couple of jars as it has such a pleasant texture
I didnt do this for all of it as its time consuming, and seemed a little wasteful. I couldnt get it all through, what didnt go through I stirred back into mixture that I wasnt going to be seiving. If you liked tou could make 3 different grades of thickness the seives the unseived and the thicker left behind -they can have different uses. I added more rum to one of mine and we dipped toasted marshmallows in it 🙂
ladle into your warm sterilied jars and label, when cool, place in the fridge.
Chestnut, mushroom and ale pie.
25g packet of dried porcini (or equivelant if you forage your own)
4 portobello mushrooms
packet of chestnut mushrooms
100-200g of roasted chestnuts
handful of fresh thyme or parsley
1 red onion
3 cloves garlic
100g of red camargue rice (or wild rice)
150ml of dark ale
100g of plain or corn flour
x1 packet puff pastry (I got ready rolled and found one which stated ‘sustainable palm oil’ on, I felt dubious and glad I dont usually buy ready made)
This made me x5 little ramekin pies and this pudding bowl one. You might prefer to make a larger family sized one.
Add your rice with water according to the packet and simmer til cooked, a darker rice with a firmer grain will add texture and bite to your pie
preheat the oven
as it cooks add the buttter to a heavy bottomed pan and soften the onions and garlic
Slice the chestnuts thinly and add to the pan
place your dried wild mushrooms (or porcini) in a jug with 300ml of boiling water
and chop your mushrooms something like 5mm (not too thin)
add all the fresh mushrooms to the pan and cook until soft
Then add your reconstituted ones and save the water/juice.
splash the ale over the ingredients in the pan
Put your flour into a jug, slowly adding this juice/water from the mushrooms which will still be warm and stir quickly
Add this to the mushrooms and stir quickly to coat everything as it thickens
chop your thyme and drain the cooked rice (if necessary) it should feel firm but cooked
add the rice and thyme to your pan and stir well
season to taste
prepsre your ramekins/pie dished and roll our your pastry. Use a cutter to stamp out the lids, or turn over your dish and cut out with a knife.
ladle the filling into your ramekins/pie dish and place the pastry on top you could seal with a fork around the edges
or leave the gravy to ooze out a little as I did 🙂 it looks a much tastier pie this way to me 🙂
glaze with milk or egg, pop in the oven for 20-30 mins on 220 oc
Foraging rosehips is pretty easy, I often read it can be prickly and time consuming but no more so than blackberries in my humble opinion. Less staining. I think the point of foraging is to spend the time outdoors and … Continue reading
I invested in Roger Phillips brilliant ‘Mushrooms’ book and John Wright’s River cottage Mushrooms handbook. I have consulted them heavily and read the latter cover-to-cover as a book one evening. Its very handy to carry out with you. I also booked myself on my first fungi talk and foray. Mushroom foraging is a skill based on a lot of knowledge, and experience.
*Which I dont have*
I am aiming to document my experiences, progress and share recipes as I learn. It will be some time before I will describe myself as a mushroom forager.
***do not use these posts as a means for identification***
(Or any other online source. If you want to be safe, research and learn for yourself, never just ask online.)
I need to be both ‘in the field’ studying habitats and fungi in their environments and in a book reading and learning and checking, and checking again in more books, observing more and checking again. It’s not worth picking anything until I have a fairly good idea what it is and I know that it is not poisonous. Consider also, what is to be gained from picking it if you know you aren’t going to use it? It is useful to insects and acting as a host to micro organisms where it is.
That said, it’s not destructive to pick mushrooms, it wont damage the mycelium which is the main part of the organism, that is living in the earth. I will often need to pick a specimen in order to examine closely at home. I learned the hard way for myself how just complicated it can be after picking specimens to examine which I will share with you in a bit before we get to puffballs and recipes.
A good starting point is the edibles that are more difficult to get wrong or get confused with anything very poisonous. I have found John Wrights book useful in getting familar with some of these. He imparts a great deal of knowledge and wisdom with a healthy dose of humour and a few clever mental images that leave you more clearer on the bigger picture. Roger Phillips wonderful book has an invaluable photo of sets of mushrooms in various stages for each species and a very broad selection. Phillips will inform ‘edible’ under an inkcap (in my edition he tends to favour ‘edible’ inedible’ ‘unknown/suspect’ and ‘poisonous’). Wright tells you that if you have consumed any alcohol then ink caps become very poisonous (technically alcohol poisoning as a chemical present in the ink cap which is not a toxin, prevents your body from breaking alcohol down in the usual way) it has been documented that even alcohol in perfumes and deodorants causes reactions in some people. It is a tricky business. You need more than one or two books and you need to pay careful attention to more than the pictures.
Knowing where to look/where mushrooms are likely to be growing, and finding your own places to forage is essential. Mycelium is the main part of your fungi and it grows under the ground you can sometimes tell where it is by the grass. The grass may vary in colour from where the mycelium has enrinched it, or drawn from it. If the mycelium is happy we dont get a mushroom, we get a mushroom where the mycelium cannot continue to spread and grow -the edges of likely environments, grassy parts of woodlands, near the carparks and road verges. Though we dont have led based petrols anymore it is wise to consider pollutants, especially as some mushrooms concentrate them, if you wouldn’t eat blackberries next to a busy road then mushrooms aren’t a good idea. Parks may be good spots to forage but consider that some very well managed ones will not leave fallen trees or cut logs, and debris that the fungi need to grow. John Wright also points out in his book that although he has foraged in parks and they may be the only possibility sometimes, it is wise to check carefully as on one occasion he picked some mushrooms which had been dusted in a a fungicide that was barely noticeable. You will also need to know what your fungi is growing on, for example Yew contains toxins so you might not want to eat anything growing on that. Most mushrooms have a symbiotic relationship with trees. Sometimes when they appear to be in the soil they are connected to a part of a tree that is/has become buried.
Learning how to identify, learning about what you’re looking at, and what those little differences mean is crucial, many times a single subtle difference that goes unnoticed by the untrained eye is the key to a succesful ID. There is little point in me looking unless I know or am learning what these are. This is where your field guides come in handy. You will then need a few tools to examine a likely looking specimen; a knife, a magnifying glass, a notebook and a camera to photograph the identifying parts. Such as the cap size, shape colour and texture, and the same for the stem, and does it have a ring? gills or tubes? where do they join to the stem? The colour of the gills? and how they are attached to the stem? how thick and how dense are they? the texture of them and if they fork or not. The smell colour and texture of the flesh. The colour of the spores and the habitat, the trees nearby. Much of this I can note ‘in situ’ a camera and notebook help me remember and record these details -and of course, where the mushrooms were.
You might need to collect a specimen to test and examine further and check with your books when you get home. You may also need to do a spore print.
Sometimes flesh stains upon cutting which is both good and bad, dependant on your species. Good for a parasol. (If it is one.) Smaller parasols may be confused with poisonous dapperlings.
Bad for a field mushroom.
You do not want yellow on the base of your field mushrooms as then they become ‘yellow stainers’ which are likely to cause stomach upset and are the most common cause of poisning from mushroom foraging in our country.
The clincher with both of these (after the size of a large parasol) is the smell, if the field mushroom smells at all ‘chemical’ like ink or detergent then it is a ‘yellow stainer’ and your parasol will smell distictively of warm milk. Not species generally recommended for a novice. Mine smelled bad. I also learned that a shaggy parasol is an amanita and contains toxins -though considered ‘good’ and edible. It must be carefully and fully cooked to break down the toxins and to avoid stomach upset, a smaller piece first is always advisable to check how you personally react (it can vary person to person). I felt out of my depth with these species.
I would not assume every mushroom I pick in the same area which looks the same is the same species -and the diferences can be quite subtle.
Not all cases of poisoning are caused by mistaken IDs, sometimes an individual can have a reaction where another doesn’t (chicken of the woods is one example). Some toxins in mushrooms react differently depending on the individual, and you may eat something a few times and be fine, and then not. On occasion the knowledge about particular mushrooms and their complicated toxicity becomes more evidenced and something widely considered ‘good’ becomes known to cause reactions in certain situations. Sometimes it may be due to incorrect preparation and cooking.
So I learned that all wild mushrooms should be thoroughly cooked and you should always try a small portion first to see how you react.
Never consider eating anything unless you are 100% confident that it is safe.
My first forage were some stump puffballs. Most puffballs are edible. You would eat a spiny one because -it is spiny. The only thing you could confuse puffballs with is an earthball, which is unpleasant but not poisonous (or not seriously so). A young (still veiled) amanita mushroom (seriously poisonous) may bear a resemblance to a common white puffball. Be sure and cut them in half lengthways, if the texture is pure white and firm with no trace of forming gills or colour then they are good to go. As they get older they develop their spores inside and you will see signs of age outside, and this change in the centre, they are very unpleasant by then. Stump puffballs are the only puffballs to grow on wood, beech (which may be buried, as in this case).
I decided to go back a few days later and took some pictures so you can see what they look like when they start sporing. Puffball spores are produced internally, in a spheroidal fruiting body called a gasteroid (‘stomach-like’). As the spores mature, they form a mass called a gleba in the centre that is usually of a distinctive color and texture. Eventually it dries, becomes brittle, splits, and the spores escape.
There are some beautiful photos of spores shooting from puffballs if you google 🙂
So I learn that it is often in the timing and with luck, after searching likely environments. I hope to discover a few patches to search around the same time each year. This will mean checking regularly, and keeping an eye on them. Sometimes they dont return and sometimes they appear where they weren’t before.
Very young mushrooms dont have much flavour so its best to wait ’til they are bigger but not getting past their best, or containing maggots as may happen to larger but outwardly healthy looking mushrooms. It’s generally advised that picking sustainably means leaving the older/elderly looking ones to spore, with the younger less tasty ones, and taking around two thirds of the rest.
The stump puffball is a beige colour, rather than the white of a common puffball, which often gets it confused with the inedible earthball. Earthballs have a slightly different shape and are hard. This puffball has a marshmallow texture, the flesh is firm spongy and completely white. The skin which is left on (but often peeled on the larger puffball variety) has a powdery feel. A more experienced friend also confirmed my thought that they were edible so after examining my specimen and researching, I went back for more.
I examined every single one closely before I prepared them for cooking, and cut each one in half lengthways as part of this process. I intend to develop good habits and stay safe.
I poured a bit of rosemary oil into the pan (infusing oils is on this blog if you want to have a go) and fried my bread.
Then added the mushrooms, keeping the heat low to sautee them, gently softening, they need about 10 mins to be cooked right through.
Dont let them get fried hard (weird texture)
Scramble the eggs in, add salt and pepper to season. I added a little cube of my homemade frozen elderberry and blackberry jus -for a treat since it was my first meal of foraged mushrooms for supper.
Very enjoyable with home made blackberry cordial and brandy 🙂
We have been out walking in the golden sunshine, now much lower in the afternoon sky and enjoying the space and time outdoors connecting with the woodlands and trees. On one walk we were lucky to see nuthatchers and tree creepers and were told where they like to feed in the coming winter months.
It feels like the cusp of change the days soon becoming filled with foraging and preserving.
I enjoy taking the time to notice little changes as they arrive and prepare myself for the coming winter months. I enjoy making the most of what nature is literally bestowing on us with gifts of apples, pears, medlars, berries, nuts and collecting the last of summer herbs before they too fade.
Self-seeded borage (and a tiny chamomile) from summer plants. Some of the herbs and flowers still going, roses flowered all winter last year! Life is always pushing forwards and making the most of it.
The trees beginning to rush a display of beautiful colours which will be bursting with flaming red and oranges until they eventually become bare and bereft, storing enery and quietly waiting for spring.
We have been foraging elderberries to make syrups and tinctures for the winter months ahead and we have started foraging mushrooms. This is a new skill I am learning so I am tentatively -and wisely, sticking to the ones I have learned with confidnce and that cannnot be mistaken for anything unpleasant, you can not identify a mushroom without first consulting a couple of books you well trust and examining a specimen closely. It is a perfect Autumn passtime, bringing me close to the earth, to the sustinence nature provides whilst also reminding to me to watch and study with great care and respect.
Death is literally hanging in the air along with this abundance
Yet as a flower fades, turns to seed and finally dies back, it may look death and total destruction but we know that come spring a tiny seedling will form and life carries on, in the way we expect and take too much for granted.
If you stand still outside you can hear it… Winter’s footsteps, the sound of falling leaves. ~Animal Crossing: Wild World (Nintendo video game) written by Takayuki Ikkaku, Arisa Hosaka, and Toshihiro Kawabata
Perhaps it is the most poetic of seasons. Surely as winter comes spring will follow.
It is the most extraordinary dance filled with energy and stillness. Perfect and miraculous balance.