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One of the great many benefits of permaculure is that it saves you a lot of money along with the number one consideration of saving the planet. Which is particularly good when you dont have any money. Necessity is the … Continue reading
As I like to forage and share recipes, it occurs to me that I have used elder, probably more than most other. The uses seem almost limitless. I have posts to share in the mushroom berry and flower foraging sections … Continue reading
It is diwali tonight as I type this, this is one of my favourite light festivals 🙂 The festival spiritually signifies the victory of light over darkness, knowledge over ignorance, good over evil, and hope over despair. It has many … Continue reading
So my next lot of foraged mushrooms were Jews ear or Jelly ear. I was initially uncomfortable with using ‘Jews ear’ but it is a part of the interesting mythology and hedge lore of the elder. ‘Jews ear’ is a mistranslation from Judas’ ear. It is believed that Judas escariot hung imself from an elder tree. Gruesome hey? Wether you call it jews ear, wood ear, jelly ear or something else (we like fairies baby ears -they outgrow them like teeth you know) the important part to remember is that it is the only fungus which looks like an ear, there are similar looking cup fungus but none look like an ear or are poisonous (according to my books and the foray Ive been on) It grows on dead elder.
I decided to dedicate a seperate post specifically to elder. Im sure there will be many more too, a quite magical and exceptionally useful tree.
Presumably the one on the left is a very young, just forming jelly/jews ear fungus, I think it’s too small to give much further consideration to, the photo on the right displays the shape very well.
Picked and turned over you can see how this fungus has gotten it’s name. The ‘proper’ name is A. auricula-judae. It is found all year but most common in Autumn, good for ‘halloweeny’ jokes and treats with children.
yummm youre thinking aren’t you?
Before you head for the hills, I will bet money that you have already unwittingly eaten this before, in anything containing mixed mushrooms. Especially mushroom soup.
They dry very well and will rehydrate back to their original size and texture. Interesting to note in China they are considered useful in treating cold and flu fevers and traditionally considered good for sore throats (much like elder berry recipes are) Interestingly proven to be effective in the general reduction of cholesterol levels. So the bacon and cream in the following recipe are optional (and also not vegetarian)
I had to use bought mushrooms as I am a new novice and have struggled to even find very much to identify, and what I have managed to find, and managed to identify at least the genus of, has rarely been edible. I have to say I’m not only interested in edibles. I’m truly a bit hooked and fascinated. Turns out I am not the only one having a hard time finding much to date, this year, so far.
I had a couple of cartons of the general white argarics you buy, argaricus bisporous to be specific, some portobellos (the same but mature) chestnut mushrooms (the same but brown) and a good sized handful of my fairy ears 😉 Make sure the latter are well washed (they can be tricky)
1 large onion
3 small cloves of garlic
herb infused oil, dried basil
plenty of seasoning
play around with whatever flavours you like, a small amount of spice is good, but dont overdo it, the flavour is very easily overpowered
finely dice the onion and garlic and add to the slow cooker with some oil
chop the mushrooms thickly and the bigger portobellos into 8, thinly sliced my ears which were fresh, you can add them whole if dehydrated then fish them out and chop them before blending
add them to the pot covering in your herbs and flavourings as you go
I poured over about 2 cups of boiling water and a added a handful of yellow lentils
blend when cooked
season to taste
swirl on cream (optional)
add crispy bacon strips and crutons (optional)
Also makes a great pasta sauce! Enjoy!
This is very simple, inexpensive, smells good and lasts well in the fridge. It is my own recipe and works for me.
candelilla wax (or beeswax that may smell different, not always pleasant)
Carrier oil, infused with honeysuckle from my garden
water, infused with rose or calendula is good. or green tea
you may want to check if you are using infused or essential oils that what you use will still be safe when mixed with other products; combinations of ingredients can change the properties.
If you use flowers they will need to be grown without chemicals!
I used olive oil which is heavy but my feet are extremely dry. I would use it again, for this purpose, in the past I have disliked it. You might prefer to use coconut or sweet almond oil
You will also need a blender, a stick one works too, I tried both and preferred the attachment in my counter top one for making mayonnaise.
1/2 cup infused/plain water at room temperature (or green tea)
4 tablespoons carrier oil
1 tablespoon candelilla wax
1 tablespoon of your favorite essential or infused oil
(This made a small jar for me, I found once or twice there was more water than needed I just tipped it off, maybe it had seperated a bit)
1. Add the oil and wax to a heatproof bowl
2. Set in a saucepan of water that reaches halfway up the side and heat on low just until the wax melts. Remove the mixture from the heat, and let it cool for one or two minutes only.
3. Pour the water into your blender and turn it on high. Slowly add your wax mixture to the water. It will begin to thicken and become creamy and rich as you add the last drops.
4. Once well blended, add your drops of essential/infused oil and mix everything together very well.
5. Pour your new natural lotion into a small jar, using a plastic spatula to get the blender as clean as possible, cleaning off the rest with your hands (you don’t want to put wax down your kitchen sink)
Your new lotion will last up to six months in the refrigerator. You can experiment using different combinations of essential or infused oils, ideal for gifts
Another thing I notice as the weather turns colder, and the daylight ebs away is that my skin becomes much drier, and I like to take care of it with a salt scrub every now and then. I have very sensitive skin.
Very easy to do yourself and doesn’t cost the earth (like palm oil)
I use sea salt.
Unrefined salt is in many ways much better for your health so I tend to only buy this, in fact it may be pretty scandalous how underated it is.
It is nothing like your refined salt manufactured largely for industry and added to our bought food products.
We have many well known sea salt producers right here and you will easily find something much more local than dead sea salt
You need aboout half a cup of your chosen carrier oil and a cup of seasalt
The salt will scrub away dead layers of skin and the oil moisturises.
I added some dried lemon balm to mine
Store in the fridge
Im going to focus on hazelnuts, walnuts and sweet chestnuts as I find these to be the most useful and hope to have interesting and useful things to share.
Just quickly; some of the other nuts you can forage and use are acorns, beech and pine. Personally I think they are a lot of hard work for little results though if you have a gluten free diet it might be useful to know you could make flour from acorn or chestnuts. Acorns can be high in tanins which are bad for your kidneys, so it is usually leeched out with water.
I thought it worth mentioning here that new leaf growth in the spring from many of these trees is tasty.
You may find Beech is more useful for that rather than the teeny tiny nuts, though Im told if youre lucky enough to have a press you can make lovely oil with them . Given how I use oils this is something I would very much like to own! (If you should hear of one being thrown out remember me).
Theres is always such a huge abundance of beech masts that everyone at some point must have thought about how they can be useful
Im talking about the 3 nuts in the order you are most likely to be finding them in the year.
The trees are more shrubs, so looking in hedgerows is a good start, I go towards the end of summer and if I find any pick them and eat them right away. When you eat nuts whilst they ae fresh and green like this, they are softer, wet and sweeter (kind of sweet in the way that carrots are) You can pick them and leave them to harden and dry to be more like the ones in the shops around christmastime
If you’re very lucky or you have your own trees that you a re able to keep squirel free you might find some that have dropped and some that have ripened and slightly hardened.
Check them for little holes left by the weevils, the squirels know not to eat these and there wont be anything edible inside.
Doormice also like hazel nuts and I couldnt resist sharing this very cute of photo of a sleeping one from The Yorkshire Wildlife Trust Taken by Tom Chalmers
cute distraction; worth digressing for
So this is what your hazel nuts look like.
This is from TCV website which I highly recommend.
http://treegrowing.tcv.org.uk/grow/tree-recipes/hazel ‘TheConservationVolunteers’ do these useful information pages/guides for growing your own trees.
It’s easy and you might grow your own hazel.
I was lucky enough to find some ripe and ready just waiting to be picked up from the ground!
I shelled them with nutcrackers (ate quite a few) and then roasted the rest with a little almond oil and sea salt
snacked on a few more
Then stored them in honey. I think they’re nicer than salted caramel and nut brittle.
(yes I snaked on a few more..)
Inspired by such thought, this happened:
Recipe for ‘Nutty dessert glasses’
(makes x4 small glasses/bowls)
x1 tub mascarpone
about 24 hazel nuts (honey to drizzle)
400g soft brown sugar
150 ml from your bottle of hazelnut coffee porter (drink the rest wahey!)
chestnut puree (optional)
In the bottom place a few of the hazelnuts stored in local honey (you can just put shop bough ones in and drizzle them in honey)
Whip up a tablespoon of mascarpone with a good sized tablespoon of chestnut puree (recipe to follow, could add a bit of freshly squeezed orange instead or leave it plain)
(my my nails are clean that is from peeling chestnuts -it hurts might be bruised)
I then topped with granola (making granola is easy but I took photographs and will add a recipe later, google will help in the meantime)
place in the fridge whilst you make the caramel/syrup
I used 150ml of Saltiare brewery’s hazelnut coffee porter
I added around 100g of brown sugar turn up the heat to get it going and then turn down to a med/high
leave it to bubble and froth for around 5 mins
removed from the heat when its looking a bit thicker
the bubbles will die down and it should look like this
Get your gla ss(es) from the fridge, sprinkle in granola nd then drizzle over your caramel
Hazelnuts are also very good for baking with -bread too very nice with cheese 😉 I used walnut this way (coming next)
One of my favourite childhood trees was a big old walnut tree. I have recently been informed that they only produce nuts for 40 years -seems unlikely to me but then maybe my memory is influenced by the fact that I was much smaller then. It seems very old and I remember gathering and eating the walnuts, and there were always so many of them! It has been hard for me to find one producing the nuts abundantly, and even harder to beat the squirrels to them, nonethless I was lucky this year and managed a ‘haul’ of about 7. I think they’re likely the most difficult to forage.
These are what the leaves look like there were no nuts still on to photograph, just the peeled remnants of the squirrels feast 😦
Each leaft is devided into 7-9 ‘leaflets’ whcih might be able to see there.
The walnuts are inside a green tough skin, you can see some of the black through these, and on the peeled ones. This can be used as a natural die and ink. You might be able to see them leaking on the picture? fresh walnuts are also called wet walnuts or green walnuts. Once you crack the shell the familiar wrinkly walnut appears inside. They are much softer resh and have a much milder sweeter flavour. You can save and dry thm if you like. I nibbled on mine and baked a few in bread rolls with a traditional nettle wrapped cornish Yarg. They were delicious.
You can google a basic white bread roll recipe -I used the hairy bikers one.
If you are lucky enough to find more it would be great to have a go at making the dyes and inks. Or you might be able to get some fresh one at farmers markets. Of course thery dont have to be fresh to be useful and you can buy them to use in recipes. Apple walnut and gorgonzola are wonderful flavours in tarts and pastries. Baklava (walnut and pistachio) not just coffee and walnut cake -but why wouldnt want to make that? 🙂 and of course pastas and salads with walnuts and cheese, and walnut and basil pesto too.
Oh and who wouldnt like to make little boats out of the shells! http://madebyjoel.com/2010/04/walnut-boats.html
*intresting fact* The Romans associated the walnut with Juno, the Roman goddess of women and marriage and the wife of Jupiter. This association led to the unique wedding practice of throwing walnuts at the bride and groom as a symbol of fertility. Women often carried walnuts to promote fertility. The botanical name Juglans is derived from Jupiter’s glans.
moving swiftly on
Chestnuts are one of those trees that have both male and female flowers, the female flowers become the nuts in Autumn
The ancient Greeks dedicated the sweet chestnut to Zeus and its botanical name castanea comes from Castonis, a Town in Thessaly in Greece where the tree was grown for its nuts.
I am lucky to have a patch of very well established chestnut trees producing abundant amounts each, which is within walking distance (as are all of the nuts Ive foraged this year)
I estimate I picked around 2lbs that have gone into purees/preserves, pies and have been eaten as snacks, this is a teeny tiny fraction of what falls onto the ground and rots away.
you can cut a cross in the flat side or a slit along the edge top to bottom, some find that easier but there is a far greater risk of slipping, thus uts harder to do whilst watching a film or something, quite tricky without a chestnut knife I found so I opted fro the cross in the flat side. You need heat and moisture to make the shells easier to work with. You can roast, boil or even wrap a handful in a damp towel and place in the microwave for a couple of minutes. I found a very hot tea towel a bit of a nuisance/pain (literally) and I prefer the flavour of roasted (which could be done after if you find them easier to peel from the microwave) If you have a lot to do it will take you longer than the oven or boiling. Theres not that much difference/if any at all in the ease of peeling with each method. Peel an eat or set aside for use (I had to put mine in the fridge overnight) soft/moist/protein, means that they could likely spoil easily. You usually use them straight away.
The membranes can be bitter if you dont peel them off it is almost as painstaking as deseeding rosehips. I left them on for the next recipe. It didn’t taste bitter.
Chestnut preserve/jam and puree
NOTE: This recipe makes 2 batches one with milk/cream for quick-ish use (milk/cream will spoil) and one with water
300-350g of chestnuts (peeled and roasted divide into 2 pans)
2 cups milk (or cream)
2 cups of water
2 cups golden sugar
x1 vanilla pod
x4 tbspn dark rum
add the milk/cream to one pan and the water to the other and a cup of soft golden sugar to both
Bring to the boil, reduce, and simmer
when the liquid has mostly absorbed and the nuts are just going crumbly on the outsides lift them out with a slotted spoon and whizz in the food processor
cut you vanilla pod in half and scrape one half into each pan and add the rum
add the liquid from the pan to the processor, til you reach your desired consistency
(you may wish to add more boiled water/milk/cream or brandy. The water needs to be boiled if you are treating this as a preserve)
TIP: if you’re making both, start with the water one then you dont have to wash everything before doing the other! (get in)
This part is optional, I pressed my puree through a seive for a couple of jars as it has such a pleasant texture
I didnt do this for all of it as its time consuming, and seemed a little wasteful. I couldnt get it all through, what didnt go through I stirred back into mixture that I wasnt going to be seiving. If you liked tou could make 3 different grades of thickness the seives the unseived and the thicker left behind -they can have different uses. I added more rum to one of mine and we dipped toasted marshmallows in it 🙂
ladle into your warm sterilied jars and label, when cool, place in the fridge.
Chestnut, mushroom and ale pie.
25g packet of dried porcini (or equivelant if you forage your own)
4 portobello mushrooms
packet of chestnut mushrooms
100-200g of roasted chestnuts
handful of fresh thyme or parsley
1 red onion
3 cloves garlic
100g of red camargue rice (or wild rice)
150ml of dark ale
100g of plain or corn flour
x1 packet puff pastry (I got ready rolled and found one which stated ‘sustainable palm oil’ on, I felt dubious and glad I dont usually buy ready made)
This made me x5 little ramekin pies and this pudding bowl one. You might prefer to make a larger family sized one.
Add your rice with water according to the packet and simmer til cooked, a darker rice with a firmer grain will add texture and bite to your pie
preheat the oven
as it cooks add the buttter to a heavy bottomed pan and soften the onions and garlic
Slice the chestnuts thinly and add to the pan
place your dried wild mushrooms (or porcini) in a jug with 300ml of boiling water
and chop your mushrooms something like 5mm (not too thin)
add all the fresh mushrooms to the pan and cook until soft
Then add your reconstituted ones and save the water/juice.
splash the ale over the ingredients in the pan
Put your flour into a jug, slowly adding this juice/water from the mushrooms which will still be warm and stir quickly
Add this to the mushrooms and stir quickly to coat everything as it thickens
chop your thyme and drain the cooked rice (if necessary) it should feel firm but cooked
add the rice and thyme to your pan and stir well
season to taste
prepsre your ramekins/pie dished and roll our your pastry. Use a cutter to stamp out the lids, or turn over your dish and cut out with a knife.
ladle the filling into your ramekins/pie dish and place the pastry on top you could seal with a fork around the edges
or leave the gravy to ooze out a little as I did 🙂 it looks a much tastier pie this way to me 🙂
glaze with milk or egg, pop in the oven for 20-30 mins on 220 oc
‘Seasonal hand tied posy’; pick some flowers from the garden, put them in a jar on the kitchen windowsill. Instant cheer! Infintitely more environmentally friendly and definitely cheaper than buying them. I like to forage wild flowers, beautful and always … Continue reading