foraging nuts, preserving and recipes.

Im going to focus on hazelnuts, walnuts and sweet chestnuts as I find these to be the most useful and hope to have interesting and useful things to share.

Just quickly; some of the other nuts you can forage and use are acorns, beech and pine. Personally I think they are a lot of hard work for little results though if you have a gluten free diet it might be useful to know you could make flour from acorn or chestnuts. Acorns can be high in tanins which are bad for your kidneys, so it is usually leeched out with water.

I thought it worth mentioning  here that new leaf growth in the spring from many of these trees is tasty.

You may find Beech is more useful for that rather than the teeny tiny nuts, though Im told if youre lucky enough to have a press you can make lovely oil with them . Given how I use oils this is something I would very much like to own! (If you should hear of one being thrown out remember me).

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Theres is always such a huge abundance of beech masts that everyone at some point must have thought about how they can be useful

Im talking about the 3 nuts in the order you are most likely to be finding them in the year.

Hazelnuts

The trees are more shrubs, so looking in hedgerows is a good start, I go towards the end of summer and if I find any pick them and eat them right away. When you eat nuts whilst they ae fresh and green like this, they are softer, wet and sweeter (kind of sweet in the way that carrots are) You can pick them and leave them to harden and dry to be more like the ones in the shops around christmastime

This image is from The Yorkshire Wildlife Trust http://www.ywt.org.uk/species/hazel “Hazel is recognisable by its almost circular, toothed leaves which have soft hairs on the underside, its yellow catkins, shiny, brown bark, and the crop of hazel nuts that appear in late summer.”

If you’re very lucky or you have your own trees that you a re able to keep squirel free you might find some that have dropped and some that have ripened and slightly hardened.

Check them for little holes left by the weevils, the squirels know not to eat these and there wont be anything edible inside.

Doormice also like hazel nuts and I couldnt resist sharing this very cute of photo of a sleeping one from The Yorkshire Wildlife Trust Taken by Tom Chalmers

Dormouse sleeping - Tom Chalmers - Tom Chalmers

*sqeeeee!* They are one of my favourite small mammals, I delight in seeing these.

cute distraction; worth digressing for

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So this is what your hazel nuts look like.

This is from TCV website which I highly recommend.

http://treegrowing.tcv.org.uk/grow/tree-recipes/hazel ‘TheConservationVolunteers’ do these useful information pages/guides for growing your own trees.

It’s easy and you might grow your own hazel.

I was lucky enough to find some ripe and ready just waiting to be picked up from the ground!

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I shelled them with nutcrackers (ate quite a few) and then roasted the rest with a little almond oil and sea salt

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snacked on a few more

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Then stored them in honey. I think they’re nicer than salted caramel and nut brittle.

(yes I snaked on a few more..)

Inspired by such thought,  this happened:

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Recipe for ‘Nutty dessert glasses’

Ingredients

(makes x4 small glasses/bowls)

x1 tub mascarpone

about 24 hazel nuts (honey to drizzle)

400g soft brown sugar

150 ml from your bottle of hazelnut coffee porter (drink the rest wahey!)

chestnut puree (optional)

In the bottom place a few of the hazelnuts stored in local honey (you can just put shop bough ones in and drizzle them in honey)

Whip up a tablespoon of mascarpone with a good sized tablespoon of chestnut puree (recipe to follow, could add a bit of freshly squeezed orange instead or leave it plain)

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(my my nails are clean that is from peeling chestnuts -it hurts might be bruised)

I then topped with granola (making granola is easy but I took photographs and will add a recipe later, google will help in the meantime)

place in the fridge whilst you make the caramel/syrup

I used 150ml of Saltiare brewery’s  hazelnut coffee porter

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I added around 100g of brown sugar turn up the heat to get it going and then turn down to a med/high

leave it to bubble and froth for around 5 mins

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removed from the heat when its looking a bit thicker

the bubbles will die down and it should look like this

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Get your gla ss(es) from the fridge, sprinkle in granola nd then drizzle over your caramel

yum!

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Hazelnuts are also very good for baking with -bread too very nice with cheese 😉 I used walnut this way (coming next)

Walnuts

One of my favourite childhood trees was a big old walnut tree. I have recently been informed that they only produce nuts for 40 years -seems unlikely to me but then maybe my memory is influenced by the fact that I was much smaller then. It seems very old and I remember gathering and eating the walnuts, and there were always so many of them! It has been hard for me to find one producing the nuts abundantly, and even harder to beat the squirrels to them, nonethless I was lucky this year and managed a ‘haul’ of about 7. I think they’re likely the most difficult to forage.

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These are what the leaves look like there were no nuts still on to photograph, just the peeled remnants of the squirrels feast 😦

Each leaft is devided into 7-9 ‘leaflets’ whcih might be able to see there.

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The walnuts are inside a green tough skin, you can see some of the black through these, and on the peeled ones. This can be used as a natural die and ink. You might be able to see them leaking on the picture? fresh walnuts are also called wet walnuts or green walnuts. Once you crack the shell the familiar wrinkly walnut appears inside. They are much softer resh and have a much milder sweeter flavour. You can save and dry thm if you like. I nibbled on mine and baked a few in bread rolls with a traditional nettle wrapped cornish Yarg. They were delicious.

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You can google a basic white bread roll recipe -I used the hairy bikers one.

If you are lucky enough to find more it would be great to have a go at making the dyes and inks. Or you might be able to get some fresh one at farmers markets. Of course thery dont have to be fresh to be useful and you can buy them to use in recipes. Apple walnut and gorgonzola are wonderful flavours in tarts and pastries. Baklava (walnut and pistachio) not just coffee and walnut cake -but why wouldnt want to make that? 🙂 and of course pastas and salads with walnuts and cheese, and walnut and basil pesto too.

Oh and who wouldnt like to make little boats out of the shells!  http://madebyjoel.com/2010/04/walnut-boats.html

*intresting fact* The Romans associated the walnut with Juno, the Roman goddess of women and marriage and the wife of Jupiter. This association led to the unique wedding practice of throwing walnuts at the bride and groom as a symbol of fertility. Women often carried walnuts to promote fertility. The botanical name Juglans is derived from Jupiter’s glans.

moving swiftly on

Sweet chestnuts

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Chestnuts are one of those trees that have both male and female flowers, the female flowers become the nuts in Autumn

The ancient Greeks dedicated the sweet chestnut to Zeus and its botanical name castanea comes from Castonis, a Town in Thessaly in Greece where the tree was grown for its nuts.

I am lucky to have a patch of very well established chestnut trees producing abundant amounts each, which is within walking distance (as are all of the nuts Ive foraged this year)

I estimate I picked around 2lbs that have gone into purees/preserves, pies and have been eaten as snacks, this is a teeny tiny fraction of what falls onto the ground and rots away.

Roasting chestnuts

you can cut a cross in the flat side or a slit along the edge top to bottom, some find that easier but there is a far greater risk of slipping, thus uts harder to do whilst watching a film or something, quite tricky without a chestnut knife I found so I opted fro the cross in the flat side. You need heat and moisture to make the shells easier to work with. You can roast, boil or even wrap a handful in a damp towel and place in the microwave for a couple of minutes. I found a very hot tea towel a bit of a nuisance/pain (literally) and I prefer the flavour of roasted (which could be done after if you find them easier to peel from the microwave) If you have a lot to do it will take you longer than the oven or boiling. Theres not that much difference/if any at all in the ease of peeling with each method. Peel an eat or set aside for use (I had to put mine in the fridge overnight) soft/moist/protein, means that they could likely spoil easily. You usually use them straight away.

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The membranes can be bitter if you dont peel them off it is almost as painstaking as deseeding rosehips. I left them on for the next recipe. It didn’t taste bitter.

Chestnut preserve/jam and puree

NOTE: This recipe makes 2 batches one with milk/cream for quick-ish use (milk/cream will spoil) and one with water

300-350g of chestnuts (peeled and roasted divide into 2 pans)

2 cups milk (or cream)

2 cups of water

2 cups golden sugar

x1 vanilla pod

x4 tbspn dark rum

add the milk/cream to one pan and the water to the other and a cup of soft golden sugar to both

Bring to the boil, reduce, and simmer

when the liquid has mostly absorbed and the nuts are just going crumbly on the outsides lift them out with a slotted spoon and whizz in the food processor

cut you vanilla pod in half and scrape one half into each pan and add the rum

add the liquid from the pan to the processor, til you reach your desired consistency

(you may wish to add more boiled water/milk/cream or brandy. The water needs to be boiled if you are treating this as a preserve)

TIP: if you’re making both, start with the water one then you dont have to wash everything before doing the other! (get in)

This part is optional, I pressed my puree through a seive for a couple of jars as it has such a pleasant texture

I didnt do this for all of it as its time consuming, and seemed a little wasteful. I couldnt get it all through, what didnt go through I stirred back into mixture that I wasnt going to be seiving. If you liked tou could make 3 different grades of thickness the seives the unseived and the thicker left behind -they can have different uses. I added more rum to one of mine and we dipped toasted marshmallows in it 🙂

ladle into your warm sterilied jars and label, when cool, place in the fridge.

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Chestnut, mushroom and ale pie.

25g packet of dried porcini (or equivelant if you forage your own)

4 portobello mushrooms

packet of chestnut mushrooms

100-200g of roasted chestnuts

handful of fresh thyme or parsley

1 red onion

3 cloves garlic

100g of red camargue rice (or wild rice)

150ml of dark ale

50g butter

100g of plain or corn flour

x1 packet puff pastry (I got ready rolled and found one which stated ‘sustainable palm oil’ on, I felt dubious and glad I dont usually buy ready made)

This made me x5 little ramekin pies and this pudding bowl one. You might prefer to make a larger family sized one.

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Add your rice with water according to the packet and simmer til cooked, a darker rice with a firmer grain will add texture and bite to your pie

preheat the oven

as it cooks add the buttter to a heavy bottomed pan and soften the onions and garlic

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Slice the chestnuts thinly and add to the pan

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place your dried wild mushrooms (or porcini) in a jug with 300ml of boiling water

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and chop your mushrooms something like 5mm (not too thin)

add all the fresh mushrooms to the pan and cook until soft

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Then add your reconstituted ones and save the water/juice.

splash the ale over the ingredients in the pan

Put your flour into a jug, slowly adding this juice/water from the mushrooms which will still be warm and stir quickly

Add this to the mushrooms and stir quickly to coat everything as it thickens

chop your thyme and drain the cooked rice  (if necessary) it should feel firm but cooked

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add the rice and thyme to your pan and stir well

season to taste

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prepsre your ramekins/pie dished and roll our your pastry. Use a cutter to stamp out the lids, or turn over your dish and cut out with a knife.

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ladle the filling into your ramekins/pie dish and place the pastry on top you could seal with a fork around the edges

or leave the gravy to ooze out a little as I did 🙂 it looks a much tastier pie this way to me 🙂

glaze with milk or egg, pop in the oven for 20-30 mins on 220 oc

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Local honey and coconut lemon muffins

Local honey and coconut lemon muffins

2 eggs (medium)

4 tablespoons of honey (I used local honeycomb)

250ml milk (semi-skimmed or whole)

125ml vegetable oil

 400g self raising flour

lemon rind to your taste, I used a tablespoon

4 tablespoons of coconut (use less if you prefer)

The flavouring ingredients can be substituted for whatever you like. If you want to make chocolate ones do NOT use drinking chocolate and be sure to substitue 100g SR flour for the 100g of cocoa powder.

You will also need:A muffin tray and muffin paper cases

Whisk your wet ingredients together in a jug. Combine your dry ingredients into your bowl and make a well to add the liquid, mix untill it all comes together. Note: if you have any fresh fruit to add, do so right at the end after youve combined all the other ingredients. Fill cases two thirds full (for the right shaped muffins) and bake for 25 mins (approx, til brown)

This honey just makes everything better and really is a touch of magic in everything and anything. I am quite keen to keep my own bees and am researching the topic in order to get going this summer. So I just had to share how pretty it is.

For the cinnamon sugar 

You can add sugar to an airtight jar and flavour it with a cinnamon stick (or any other ingredients) or you may wish to mix cinnamon and sugar as I did, it makes a lovely decoration on the top too. A good ration is 2 tablespoons of caster and one tablespoon of cinnamon. I took a couple of good pinches and spirinkled over before they cooled so that it ‘stuck’.

I tried out my new dehydrator with fruit so have a couple of jars of dried pear and apple. Pear and honey is a fabulous combination. Trust me I can’t wax lyrical enough about that, pear and honey muffins are fabulous!

 

Pear and rosehip tea

I added two small slices or one large slice, of dehydrated pear and a tablespoon of dried rosehips (mine are whole crushed ones) You can make tea with whatever you like and its fun to experiment with combinations. I added this to the infuser in the centre of my teapot and it made about 2 cups.

Swiss Chard: Tourte de blettes

I have grown a fairly decent amount of Swiss chard (Its my first year of growing many things) I grew it from seed having made a conscientious decision to only use open-pollinated seeds, these were obtained from a local seed swap. I made spiced chard chips -the new kale chips 😉 and I pickled the stems in white wine and rice wine vinegar -for an Asian style pickle. I decided to make a Tourte de blettes with what was left over.

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Tourte de blettes, obviously isnt form Yorkshire 😉 Its a ‘funny sounding’ French recipe from the South of france, Nice. This is important as French cooking is very regional, and what you find in Nice you wont find in Paris. Really it isnt as odd as it sounds we are all used to carrotcake and nowadays maybe beetroot and cougettes in cake too. You should try these things if you havent they’re good! So, we are talking about a balanced medium -not too sweet tart, a sweet thin pastry made with oil, and a filling of chard, parmesan, raisins (I used sultanas) pecans (I used almonds -straying a bit far for some but it worked wonderfully) eggs to set it and some cinamon and brandy for soaking the raisins/sultanas. If that reminds you of a near christmassy mincemeat filing you’d not be a million miles off. That said though, dont expect it to be like that! I used golden caster sugar throughout.

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This my take on a Tourte de blettes. You can double this recipe for a larger tin. I used a small one.

For the pastry:

(160 g) plain flour
(30 g)  golden sugar
small teaspoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt
(30ml) olive oil
1 large eggs
Optional: 2 to 3 tablespoons whole milk (if dry and it’s necessary)

For the filling:

250g of Swiss chard *leaves*
pinch of salt
30g sultanas
brandy
15g almonds
1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon
15g Parmesan cheese, freshly grated
100g granulated sugar
1 large eggs
1 medium baking apples

Icing sugar to dust for presentation.

Method

1. Make the pastry dough by mixing together the plain, flour, sugar, baking powder, and salt in a bowl. Add the olive oil and the eggs, mixing until the dough is smooth.

2. Divide the dough into two pieces, one slightly larger than the other, wrap each in clingfilm and shape the two dough portions into disks. Chill whilst you continue (its useful to chill for up to an hour or so if it is sticky)

(pastry dough can be made up to two days in advance.)

3.preheat the oven to 180ºC, I wait til the pastry is done as cool environment is often adventageous

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4. Wash the chard leaves and place in a saucepan with a bit of water and a pinch of salt. Cover, and cook the leaves until they’re completely wilted, about 15 minutes.

5. Drain the leaves and run cold water over them, turning them as you rinse. This ‘sets’ the color. Once cool, squeeze the leaves as firmly as you can to extract as much water from them as possible. Dont be worried here your main aim is to avoid a watery tart!

6. Place the sultanas in a small saucepan and pour just enough brandy to cover. Simmer for a minute or two, until absorbed.Transfering to a cold bold to help them cool to room temperature.

7. Chop the Swiss chard and put it into a medium bowl. Coarsely chop the sultanas and almonds and add them to the chard. Stir in the cinnamon, Parmesan, and sugar, and then the eggs.

8. Lightly grease a small tart pan with a removable bottom.

9. Dust both sides of the larger pieces of dough and roll it between two large sheets of parchment paper. About halfway through rolling, peel away the parchment and re-dust both sides of the dough with flour, then continue to roll the dough until it’s the size that will fit into the bottom of the tart pan and go up the sides. It may not always be necessary to use the paper (or clingfilm can be used too) but it is useful for getting a nice thin pastry if you struggle with stickyness.

10. Peel away the top piece of parchment and carefully overturn the dough on to the tart pan. Peel away the other piece of parchment and lift and sink your pastry into the tin. press lightly into the sides. Smooth the dough into place and even it out if necessary. mine wasnt sticky and worked fine but it doesnt always for everyone. Patching it up is often necessary and if you dont your filling might leak.

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11. Spread the filling into the tart pan over the dough, then peel and thinly slice the apples, and lay them in an even layer over the Swiss chard filling.

13. Roll out the other disk of dough as you did the lower one, between two parchment paper sheets, and transfer it to the tart pan to cover the tart filling. You will be able to see yor apples but dont worry if not.

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14. Use your fingers to seal the dough at the edges to enclose the filling. A few gaps are normal.

15. Bake for 30 to 40 minutes, until the dough is golden brown on top. Remove from the oven and allow to cool before dusting with icing sugar and slicing.

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